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Antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory and oxidative DNA damage protective property of Boerhaavia diffusa (Linn.) root

Akhter, F., Hashim, A., Khan, M.S., Ahmad, S., Iqbal, D., Srivastava, A.K., Siddiqui, M.H.
South African journal of botany 2013 v.88 pp. 265-272
DNA damage, Nyctaginaceae, alkaloids, alpha-amylase, antioxidant activity, ethanol, flavonoids, free radical scavengers, high performance liquid chromatography, lipids, medicinal plants, methanol, nitrogen, plasmids, proteins, reactive oxygen species, saponins, screening, terpenoids
Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. of family Nyctaginaceae is a known traditional medicinal plant and has been used in the treatment of many free radical mediated diseases. Excessive formation of free radicals, either reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is responsible for damaging various biomolecules like DNA, lipids and proteins. The present investigation was initially carried out to explore the possible link between antioxidant, oxidative DNA damage protective and α-amylase inhibitory property of B. diffusa root extract and their bioactive fraction. Our results illustrated an enhanced DPPH radical scavenging activity/antioxidant power of methanol root extract (IC50<250μg/ml) than ethanol (IC50=250μg/ml) and aqueous extract (IC50>250μg/ml). In addition, the methanol root extract also showed better oxidative DNA damage protective activity and α-amylase inhibitory property than ethanol and aqueous root extract. Phytochemical screening of B. diffusa ethanol and methanol root extract showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and terpenoids in large amount. By means of repetitive preparatory TLC and HPLC the potent antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory fraction was isolated from methanol root extract. Our results illustrated that DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50<250μg/ml) and oxidative DNA damage protective and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the isolated/purified bioactive compound from methanol extract were significantly closer to that of crude extract, which in turn confirm that antioxidant and antidiabetic property of methanol root extract resides in this fraction and established a significant correlation between antioxidant and inhibitory α-amylase property of this bioactive fraction compound. These profound effects of B. diffusa methanol root extract and its purified fraction against oxidative plasmid DNA damage, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activity may explain its extensive use in daily life and possible health benefits.