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The crucial elements of the ‘last step’ of programmed cell death induced by kinetin in root cortex of V. faba ssp. minor seedlings

Doniak, Magdalena, Barciszewska, Mirosława Z., Kaźmierczak, Joanna, Kaźmierczak, Andrzej
Plant cell reports 2014 v.33 no.12 pp. 2063-2076
chromocenters, seedlings, vacuoles, cytosol, phosphotransferases (kinases), phosphorylation, epigenetics, histones, fluorescence, DNA, apoptosis, cortex, kinetin, calcium, adenosine triphosphate, nuclear genome, nucleases, acidification, DNA methylation, ions, zinc, chromatin, death
KEY MESSAGE : Kinetin-induced programmed cell death, manifested by condensation, degradation and methylation of DNA and fluctuation of kinase activities and ATP levels, is an autolytic and root cortex cell-specific process. The last step of programmed cell death (PCD) induced by kinetin in the root cortex of V. faba ssp. minor seedlings was explained using morphologic (nuclear chromatin/aggregation) and metabolic (DNA degradation, DNA methylation and kinases activity) analyses. This step involves: (1) decrease in nuclear DNA content, (2) increase in the number of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained chromocenters, and decrease in chromomycin A₃ (CMA₃)-stained chromocenters, (3) increase in fluorescence intensity of CMA₃-stained chromocenters, (4) condensation of DAPI-stained and loosening of CMA₃-stained chromatin, (5) fluctuation of the level of DNA methylation, (6) fluctuation of activities of exo-/endonucleolytic Zn²⁺ and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-dependent nucleases, (7) changes in H1 and core histone kinase activities and (8) decrease in cellular ATP amount. These results confirmed that kinetin-induced PCD was a specific process. Additionally, based on data presented in this paper (DNA condensation and ATP depletion) and previous studies [increase in vacuole, increase in amount of cytosolic calcium ions, ROS production and cytosol acidification “in Byczkowska et al. (Protoplasma 250:121–128, 2013)”], we propose that the process resembles autolytic type of cell death, the most common type of death during development of plants. Lastly, the observations also suggested that regulation of these processes might be under control of epigenetic (methylation/phosphorylation) mechanisms.