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Physiological Genetics of Aluminum Tolerance in the Wheat Cultivar Atlas 66

Tang, Y., Garvin, D. F., Kochian, L. V., Sorrells, M. E., Carver, B. F.
Crop science 2002 v.42 no.5 pp. 1541
Triticum aestivum, aluminum, cultivars, phytotoxicity, acid soils, genetic resistance, seedlings, hydroponics, apical meristems, root meristems, root tips, alleles, loci
Aluminum toxicity limits wheat (L.) production on acidic soils. The wheat cultivar Atlas 66 reportedly may have both more than one Al tolerance gene and more than one Al tolerance mechanism. The purpose of this study was to identify the Al tolerance mechanisms conferred by the individual Atlas 66 Al tolerance genes present in near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the cv. Century and Chisholm ('Century-T' and ‘Chisholm-T’). Seedling hydroponic culture analysis revealed that the NILs were not as Al tolerant, nor were they able to exclude Al from root apices as effectively as Atlas 66. Al-inducible malate release from root apices was significantly higher in the NILs compared with the recurrent parents, but less than that observed in Atlas 66. In contrast, root phosphate release was significantly lower than previously reported in Atlas 66, with no major differences observed among lines. These results indicate that the Atlas 66 Al tolerance gene present in each NIL acts by increasing Al-inducible malate release from root tips, but confers only a portion of the Al tolerance of Atlas 66 in both instances. Thus, differences in Al tolerance between the NILs and Atlas 66 can be attributed to malate release differences, and not differential phosphate release. Further, these results indicate that genetic variation at more than one locus underlies the malate-mediated Al tolerance differences in Atlas 66, when compared with Century and Chisholm. The Atlas 66 alleles for these loci have not been introgressed into the NILs.