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A world-wide perspective on crucifer speciation and evolution: phylogenetics, biogeography and trait evolution in tribe Arabideae

Karl, Robert, Koch, Marcus A.
Annals of botany 2013 v.112 no.6 pp. 983-1001
Arabis, annuals, biogeography, center of origin, loci, monophyly, nucleotide sequences, paraphyly, plastid DNA, taxonomic revisions
Background and Aims Tribe Arabideae are the most species-rich monophyletic lineage in Brassicaceae. More than 500 species are distributed in the majority of mountain and alpine regions worldwide. This study provides the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the species assemblage and tests for association of trait and characters, providing the first explanations for the enormous species radiation since the mid Miocene. Methods Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence variation of nuclear encoded loci and plastid DNA are used to unravel a reliable phylogenetic tree. Trait and ancestral area reconstructions were performed and lineage-specific diversification rates were calculated to explain various radiations in the last 15 Myr in space and time. Key Results A well-resolved phylogenetic tree demonstrates the paraphyly of the genus Arabis and a new systematic concept is established. Initially, multiple radiations involved a split between lowland annuals and mountain/alpine perennial sister species. Subsequently, increased speciation rates occur in the perennial lineages. The centre of origin of tribe Arabideae is most likely the Irano-Turanian region from which the various clades colonized the temperate mountain and alpine regions of the world. Conclusions Mid Miocene early diversification started with increased speciation rates due to the emergence of various annual lineages. Subsequent radiations were mostly driven by diversification within perennial species during the Pliocene, but increased speciation rates also occurred during that epoch. Taxonomic concepts in Arabis are still in need of a major taxonomic revision to define monophyletic groups.