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Effect of Li3PO 4 addition on the sintering temperature, phase, microstructure, and electrical properties of BaTiO3
- Uzair, Muhammad, Iqbal, Yaseen, Muhammad, Raz, Hayat, Khizar, Reaney, Ian M.
- Journal of materials science 2015 v.50 no.4 pp. 1752-1759
- X-ray diffraction, ceramics, dielectric properties, microstructure, phase transition, temperature
- Decreasing the sintering temperature of BaTiO₃without deteriorating the dielectric properties is technologically important in the fabrication of multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). Consequently, ceramic formulations based on the (1 − x)BaTiO₃–xLi₃PO₄(x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1) were prepared. The use of Li₃PO₄as a sintering aid lowered the optimum sintering temperature from 1350 to 1150 °C but X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of BaLiPO₄for x = 0.01–0.05 and an additional secondary LiPO₃phase at x = 0.1. The room temperature dielectric constant decreased from ~4288 to ~3600 and the remnant polarization and coercive field also decreased from 6.70 to 3 µC/cm²and 3.32 to 2.5 kV/cm, respectively, as x increased from 0 to 0.05 but more importantly the phase transition temperature remained essentially constant, an important factor in the fabrication of temperature stable devices. Moreover, the bulk and grain boundary conductivity decreased as x increased to 0.05, possibly related to a decrease in the grain size from 50 to 1 μm. These results suggest that Li₃PO₄may have technological benefits in the fabrication of MLCCs.