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Monolithic and core–shell columns in comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC: a review

Jandera, Pavel, Hájek, Tomáš, Staňková, Magda
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2015 v.407 no.1 pp. 139-151
beverages, carotenoids, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, instrumentation, lipids, oils, peptides, permeability, plant extracts, polymers, proteins, silica gel, surfactants
The crucial point affecting the separation time in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is the performance of the column used in the second dimension, which should allow highly efficient fast chromatographic separations in the short time available for the analysis of fractions transferred from the first to the second dimension (often 1 min or less). This can be accomplished on short columns packed with sub-2-μm particles, at the cost of very high operation pressure. Core–shell or silica monolithic columns have better permeability, and their use in the second dimension of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with conventional liquid chromatography instrumentation is continuously increasing. Monolithic columns based on organic polymer matrices offer a wide selection of stationary phase chemistries, including new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography materials, which can be used in the design of novel two-dimensional separations. Some organic polymer monolithic materials offer a dual retention mechanism (reversed-phase hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography), so a single column can be used in alternating runs for highly orthogonal off-line two-dimensional and even three-dimensional separations. In the present work, the properties of core–shell and silica gel monolithic columns are briefly summarized and their applications in two-dimensional separations of peptides, proteins, oligomer surfactants, fats and oils, carotenoids, phenolic and flavone compounds in plant extracts, food, and beverages are reviewed.