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Nicotinic acid and derivatives as multifunctional pharmacophores for medical applications

Sinthupoom, Nujarin, Prachayasittikul, Veda, Prachayasittikul, Supaluk, Ruchirawat, Somsak, Prachayasittikul, Virapong
European food research & technology 2015 v.240 no.1 pp. 1-17
antioxidant activity, atherosclerosis, blood flow, blood lipids, cardiac arrest, drugs, food research, lipids, niacin, pharmacology, structure-activity relationships
Cardiovascular disease is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is a vascular condition known as an atherosclerosis referring to the accumulation of immune cells and lipids in vascular walls that finally obstructs blood flow to trigger heart attack. To prevent and treat the atherosclerosis is to control blood lipid level. Diverse classes of lipid-lowering drug have been used. Nicotinic acid (niacin or vitamin B₃) is the first drug that has been used for over five decades. Nicotinic acid and its derivatives play important role as multifunctional pharmacophores exerting a variety of biological activities. This review focuses on the redox and non-redox reactions as well as antioxidant activity of nicotinic acid derivatives and drugs acting on nicotinic acid receptor including therapeutic and cosmetic applications. Structure–activity relationship of nicotinic acid derivatives has been discussed. This article could provide insight into the rational design and development of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential.