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Improving urea formaldehyde resin properties by glyoxalated soda bagasse lignin
- Younesi-Kordkheili, Hamed, Kazemi-Najafi, Saeed, Eshkiki, Rabi Behrooz, Pizzi, Antonio
- European journal of wood and wood products 2015 v.73 no.1 pp. 77-85
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption, adhesives, bagasse, crystal structure, differential scanning calorimetry, formaldehyde, gelation, lignin, pH, plywood, resins, shear strength, temperature, urea, urea formaldehyde, wood
- The aim of this research was a reduction of formaldehyde emission and the improvement of the water resistance of urea formaldehyde (UF) resins by incorporating glyoxalated soda bagasse lignin. For this purpose, various contents of unmodified and glyoxalated lignins (10, 15 and 20 %) were added at pH = 7 instead of second urea during the UF resin synthesis. The properties of the resins as well as water absorption, shear strength, and formaldehyde emission of plywood panels made with these adhesives were measured. Among all the resins synthesized, the resin yielding the best results (based on formaldehyde emission and gelation time as well as water absorption, mechanical strength, and formaldehyde content of the associated panels) was selected, and its properties were further analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray Diffractometry (XRD). The lignin based resins yielded good shear strength of the plywood panels, passing comfortably relevant international standard specifications; the panels also showed lower formaldehyde emission and water absorption when compared to commercial UF adhesives. Based on these findings, it was attempted to improve the performance of soda bagasse lignin in UF resins by glyoxalation. The UF resin containing 15 % glyoxalated lignin (GLUF15) still exhibited less water absorption and formaldehyde release without significant differences in shear strength and physicochemical properties compared to the UF resin control. DSC analysis indicated that in comparison to UF resin the curing process of GLUF resin shifted to lower temperatures. According to the FTIR spectra, by addition of lignin the proportion of C–N bond in methylene linkages decreases when urea is partly replaced by lignin or glyoxalated lignin. XRD analysis indicated that the crystallinity of the UF resins decreased with addition of glyoxalated lignin.