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Dissipation pattern, safety evaluation, and generation of processing factor (PF) for pyraclostrobin and metiram residues in grapes during raisin preparation
- Shabeer T. P., Ahammed, Girame, Rushali, Hingmire, Sandip, Banerjee, Kaushik, Sharma, Ajay Kumar, Oulkar, Dasharath, Utture, Sagar, Jadhav, Manjusha
- Environmental monitoring and assessment 2015 v.187 no.2 pp. 4268
- dietary exposure, dipping, drying, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, half life, liquid chromatography, maximum permissible intake, metiram, models, oils, processing residues, pyraclostrobin, raisin grapes, washing
- A residue analysis method was validated for trace level estimation of pyraclostrobin by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and metiram (analyzed as CS₂) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in grapes and raisin matrix. Dissipation of their residues and processing factors (PFs) during raisin making were evaluated through field studies with applications at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD). Residue data during drying process were best fitted to first + first-order kinetics model giving half-life ranging between 6 and 7 days for pyroclostrobin and 4 days for metiram. PFs for metiram and pyraclostrobin related to washing and oil dipping were 0.47 and 0.41, and 0.78 and 0.63 at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD), respectively. PF value of >1 for drying (1.01 and 1.31 for metiram and 1.34 and 1.10 for pyraclostrobin) indicates concentration of the residues during the drying process. The dietary exposure corresponding to average daily consumption of 0.0043 kg raisin per day on each sampling day was less than the respective maximum permissible intake at both the doses.