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Microbiological and Physicochemical Analysis of Pumpkin Juice Fermentation by the Basidiomycetous Fungus Ganoderma lucidum

Zhao, Jing, Liu, Wei, Chen, Dong, Zhou, Chunli, Song, Yi, Zhang, Yuyu, Ni, Yuanying, Li, Quanhong
Journal of food science 2015 v.80 no.2 pp. C241
Ganoderma lucidum, acidification, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, biomass, color, esters, fermentation, food science, free amino acids, fructose, fungi, gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry, glucose, headspace analysis, juices, ketones, logit analysis, pH, principal component analysis, pumpkins, solid phase microextraction, titratable acidity, viscosity, volatile compounds
A new protocol for processing of pumpkin juice was set up which included fermentation by the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum at 28 °C for 7 d. The growth curve of G. lucidum in pumpkin juice was successfully (R² = 0.99) fitted by a 4‐parameter logistic model and the ideal highest biomass was estimated to be 4.79 g/L. G. lucidum was found to have a significant acidification effect on pumpkin juice. The lowest pH (4.05 ± 0.05) and highest total titratable acidity (14.31 ± 0.16 mL 0.1 M NaOH/100 mL) were found on the 4th day during fermentation. Sugars in pumpkin juice fermented with G. lucidum showed a significant decrease, especially glucose and fructose. On the contrary, the release of exo‐polysaccharides and free amino acids greatly enriched the pumpkin juice. The variation of color index and viscosity also mirrored the above behavior. Based on headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry, 68 volatile compounds were identified, including 17 esters, 14 alcohols, 13 phenyl compounds, 11 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 3 acids, 1 furan, and 1 benzothiazole. The pumpkin juices fermented for different days were markedly differentiated with principal component analysis and the fermentation process was tentatively divided into 3 periods: the booming (from the 1st to 4th day), steady (from the 5th to 6th day), and decline (the 7th day) period.