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Molecular characterization of measles viruses that circulated in Cameroon between 2010 and 2011

Demanou, Maurice, Ratsitoharana, Rajhonson, Yonga, Martial, Dosseh, Annick, Anya, Blanche, Kobela, Marie, Njouom, Richard
Virology journal 2013 v.10 no.1 pp. 71
sequence analysis, nucleoproteins, virus transmission, nucleotides, World Health Organization, Measles morbillivirus, phylogeny, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, hemagglutinins, viruses, genes, genotype, patients, genetic variation, RNA, Nigeria, Northern Africa, Cameroon
BACKGROUND: Measles virus (MeV) is monotypic, but genetic variation in the hemagglutinin H and nucleoprotein N genes can be analyzed by molecular epidemiologic techniques and used to study virus transmission patterns. The World Health Organization currently recognizes 8 clades (A-H) within which are 24 genotypes of MeV and one provisional genotype, d11. Genotype B3 is clearly the endemic genotype in most of African continent where it is widely distributed. We provide an update on the molecular characterization of wild-type MeVs that circulated in Cameroon between 2010 and 2011. FINDINGS: Viral RNA was extracted directly from samples obtained from clinically diagnosed measles patients using QIAamp viral RNA Mini Kit. Reverse transcription and PCR amplification of 634 nucleotides of the N gene was performed using the SuperScriptâ„¢ III One-Step. Sequence analysis of 450 of the 634 nucleotides using Clustal X 2.0 program for multiple alignments and Mega version 5 for phylogenic analysis indicated that all the viruses belonged to genotype B3 with two distinct clusters. Twenty three (77%) belonged to subgroup B3.1 and the other 7 (23%) belonged to B3.3 a recently described subtype. Circulation of cluster 3 was detected in the Far-North Region (5/7) particularly along the Chad-Cameroon border in 2010 and later in Yaounde (2/7 in Biyem-assi Health District) the capital city of Cameroon in 2011. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the endemic circulation in Cameroon of MeV B3 subtype 1, which probably has its source in the neighboring Nigeria, and the presence of the new subtype B3.3, suggesting a possible importation from Northern Africa where it was first described between 2008 and 2009.