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Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

Abdelkhalek, Nevien K. M., Ghazy, Emad W., Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2015 v.22 no.4 pp. 3023-3031
Oreochromis niloticus, Spirulina platensis, alanine transaminase, albumins, alkaline phosphatase, antioxidant activity, aspartate transaminase, biomarkers, blood proteins, blood serum, catalase, cholesterol, creatinine, deltamethrin, dietary supplements, free radical scavengers, freshwater, freshwater fish, gills, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, humans, kidneys, lipid peroxidation, liver, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, poisoning, protective effect, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, urea, uric acid
Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 μg/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.