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Review: tailoring the properties of macroporous carbon foams

Nagel, Bogumiła, Pusz, Sławomira, Trzebicka, Barbara
Journal of materials science 2014 v.49 no.1 pp. 1-17
boron, carbon, construction industry, electronics, environmental protection, foaming, foams, nitrogen, raw materials, temperature
Carbon foams are non-toxic, highly porous, light materials which demonstrate a wide range of properties. That fact allows carbon foams to be applied in many areas of life, ranging from electronics industry, through machinery, car and construction industry, to environmental protection. The properties of carbon foams are closely connected with their density, and its value is especially influenced by their internal structure, i.e. mainly size and number of pores, pore wall thickness and structural order of solid matrix. That is why it is possible to design the properties of carbon foams by controlling their growth. The main control factors are selecting the suitable raw material, the process parameters (temperature and pressure) and the suitable production method. Additionally, the properties of carbon foams may be modified by doping them with carbon or mineral fillers. The second method is the enrichment of carbon matrix with heteroatoms, mainly of boron and nitrogen. This paper presents the review of the possibilities of tailoring the structure and properties of carbon foams, based on the current level of knowledge available in the literature.