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Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water and Two Fish Species from Golf Course Ponds in Beijing, China
- PuYang, Xuehua, Gao, Chenhao, Han, Liebao
- Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 2015 v.94 no.4 pp. 437-443
- Carassius carassius, Ctenopharyngodon idella, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fish, fish consumption, golf courses, heavy metals, humans, lead, mercury, ponds, risk, risk assessment, safety standards, zinc, China
- To assess the situation of heavy metals contamination, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in water and two fish species (crucian carp and grass carp) from six golf course ponds of Beijing were measured. Differences in metals concentrations in water and fish samples were observed among different sites, but below the relevant standards and safety values. Significant positive correlations were found between metals concentrations in water and fish samples, except for As in grass carp. Health risks to human via dietary intake of fish were then assessed based on the target hazard quotient and hazard index (HI). The HI in all fish samples were lower than 1, indicating the absence of health risks through consuming these fish.