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Distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web of Nansi Lake, China

Zhang, Guizhai, Pan, Zhaoke, Wang, Xiaoming, Mo, Xiaojie, Li, Xiaoming
Environmental monitoring and assessment 2015 v.187 no.4 pp. 173
Macrobrachium, Cyprinus carpio, fish, Carassius auratus, sediments, lakes, Ceratophyllum demersum, anthracenes, risk assessment, Channa argus, molecular weight, carcinogenicity, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, bioaccumulation, muscles, Potamogeton lucens, aquatic plants, food webs, phenanthrenes, absorption, benzo(a)pyrene, shrimp, China
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in water, sediment, and biota (aquatic plant, shrimp, and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The concentrations of total PAHs were 27.54–55.04 ng L–¹ in water, 80.31–639.23 ng g⁻¹ dry weight (dw) in sediments, 20.92–192.78 ng g⁻¹ dw in aquatic plants, and 67.3–533.9 ng g–¹ dw in fish and shrimp muscles. The ratios of phenanthrene to anthracene (Ph/An), fluoranthene to pyrene (Flu/Pyr), and low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) in sediment indicated that the sources of the PAHs were a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic contamination at most sampling sites in Nansi Lake. The composition profile of PAHs in plants was similar to that in water and animals with 2–3 ring PAHs being dominant. The 4–6 ring PAHs were the dominant PAH compounds in sediment. There is a positive correlation between sediment and aquatic plants, but their PAH composition profiles were different, implying that aquatic plant absorption of PAHs from sediment is selective and the accumulation of PAHs in aquatic plants is different. The concentration of PAHs in fish showed a positive correlation with plants, reflecting that the PAHs in fish are mainly absorbed from aquatic plants rather than directly from the water. Bioaccumulation of LMW PAHs in aquatic biota was higher than HMW PAHs. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of total PAHs in the plants Potamogeton lucens Linn and Ceratophyllum demersum Linn were higher than that in most animals. The BSAF values of total PAHs in animals were in the following order: Cyprinus carpio > Macrobrachium nipponense > Carassius auratus > Channa argus. There was no significant relationship between PAH bioaccumulation and trophic levels in Nansi Lake. Risk assessment of PAHs in water, sediment, and animals indicated that the water environment of Nansi Lake is safe at present. It is worthwhile to note that benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), indeno [1,2,3-cd] pyrene (InP), dibenz [a, h] anthracene (DBA), and benzo [ghi] perylene (BghiP) were detected in sediment, plants, and animals at all sampling sites, and they have potential carcinogenicity to the organisms of Nansi Lake.