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Occurrence and effectiveness of an indigenous strain of Myrothecium roridum Tode: Fries as a bioherbicide for water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Nigeria

Okunowo, Wahab O., Osuntoki, Akinniyi A., Adekunle, Adedotun A., Gbenle, George O.
Biocontrol science and technology 2013 v.23 no.12 pp. 1387-1401
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Curvularia pallescens, Eichhornia crassipes, Fusarium solani, Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium, biological control, biopesticides, disease incidence, disease severity, fungi, internal transcribed spacers, lakes, necrosis, pathogens, petioles, ribosomal DNA, spores, virulence, Nigeria, United Kingdom
In a study to isolate fungal pathogens with potential for the biocontrol of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), some lakes in the Lagos State and its environs, Nigeria, were surveyed for diseased water hyacinth (E. crassipes). The fungi present in the diseased tissue were isolated and identified as: Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus flavus , Penicillium sp., Curvularia pallescens , Fusarium solani and Myrothecium roridum . The pathogenicity of isolates of these fungi on fresh, non-diseased water hyacinth plants was investigated. Myrothecium was the only species capable of inducing disease symptoms. Necrosis was observed on water hyacinth leaves three days post inoculation (DPI) with M. roridum (1 × 10 ⁶ spores/ml). The leaves and the petioles were withered at the end of day 24, and the disease incidence and disease severity were 100% and 8.67%, respectively. Molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA of the M. roridum isolate from water hyacinth showed >98% homology to authenticated sequences of M. roridum . The isolate, deposited at the International Mycological Institute, UK, as M. roridum Tode: Fries (IMI 394934), possesses the level of virulence needed in a potential mycoherbicide for use in the management of water hyacinth.