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Genotypic Differences in Dry Bean Yield and Yield Components as Influenced by Nitrogen Fertilization and Rhizobia

Fageria, N. K., Ferreira, E. P. B., Melo, L. C., Knupp, A. M.
Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2014 v.45 no.12 pp. 1583-1604
Phaseolus vulgaris, Rhizobium, dry beans, field experimentation, genotype, grain yield, harvest index, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, nutrient use efficiency, nutrients, pods, seed inoculation, straw
Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume worldwide and nitrogen (N) is most yield limiting nutrients. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to evaluate response of 15 dry bean genotypes to nitrogen and rhizobial inoculation. The N and rhizobia treatments were (i) control (0 kg N ha ⁻¹), (ii) seed inoculation with rhizobia strains, (iii) seed inoculation with rhizobia strains + 50 kg N ha ⁻¹, and (iv) 120 kg N ha ⁻¹. Straw yield, grain yield, and yield components were significantly influenced by N and rhizobial treatments. Grain yield, straw yield, number of pods m ⁻², and grain harvest index were significantly influenced by year, nitrogen + rhizobium, and genotype treatments. Year × Nitrogen + rhizobium × genotype interactions were also significant for these traits. Hence, these traits varied among genotypes with the variation in year and nitrogen + rhizobium treatments. Inoculation with rhizobium alone did not produce maximum yield and fertilizer N is required in combination with inoculation. Based on grain yield efficiency index, genotypes were classified as efficient, moderately efficient, and inefficient in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). NUE defined as grain produced per unit N applied decreased with increasing N rate. Overall, NUE was 23.17 kg grain yield kg ⁻¹ N applied at 50 kg N ha ⁻¹ and 13.33 kg grain per kg N applied at 120 kg N ha ⁻¹.