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Determination of Heavy-Metal Concentration with Chlorophyll Contents of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Exposed to Municipal Sewage Sludge Doses
- Demirezen Yilmaz, Dilek, Temizgül, Ayşegül
- Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2014 v.45 no.21 pp. 2754-2766
- Triticum aestivum, chlorophyll, environmental protection, fertilizers, heavy metals, land application, physicochemical properties, physiological response, plant anatomy, profits and margins, recycling, sewage sludge, soil amendments, soil properties, wheat, United States
- The present study was conducted to assess the suitability of sewage-sludge amendment in soil for Triticum aestivum (wheat) by evaluating the heavy-metal accumulation and physiological responses of plants grown at 10, 25, and 50% sewage sludge amendment rate. Sewage sludge amendment modified the physicochemical properties of soil, thus increasing the availability of heavy metals in soil and consequently greater accumulation in plant parts. The chlorophyll contents generally increased after the sewage sludge treatments. Heavy-metal accumulation in the soil after the treatments did not exceed the limits for land application of sewage sludge recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Recycling sewage sludge as fertilizer will generate economical profits. However, the use of sewage sludge amendment in the soil for growing wheat may not be a good option due to risk of contamination of some heavy metals.