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Effect of genotype and storage time on stability of colour, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) jams
- Mazur, S.P., Nes, A., Wold, A.-B., Remberg, S.F., Martinsen, B.K., Aaby, K.
- Acta agriculturæ Scandinavica 2014 v.64 no.5 pp. 442-453
- Rubus idaeus, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, color, cultivars, ellagic acid, flavor, floricanes, fruiting, genotype, jams, phenolic compounds, processing technology, quercetin, storage time, taste, Norway
- Changes in colour, phenolic composition and ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations in jams made from eight, floricane fruiting, red raspberry genotypes stored for six months at 20°C were investigated. Additionally, the relationship between genotypes and quality parameters was assessed. On average for all genotypes, 83% AA degradation was observed during the first three months of storage. After six months, the concentrations of anthocyanins, total quercetin glycosides and lambertianin C decreased by 80%, 13% and 7%, while ellagic acid conjugates and total phenolics increased by 47% and 8%, respectively. The anthocyanins detected in highest concentrations in fresh jams, that is, cyanidin-3-(2 ᵍ-glucosylrutinoside), cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside showed the highest stability during storage, that is, 28%, 21%, 12% and 11% left after six months of storage, respectively. A significant decrease in colour (lightness, chroma and hue) was also observed during storage. The colour changes of stored jams, however, were much slower than the pigment degradation. On average, lightness, chroma and hue decreased by 13%, 29% and 18% during six months of storage, respectively. The lowest anthocyanin degradation was observed in jams characterised by red-bluish colour and high initial anthocyanin content, that is, ‘Veten’, ‘RU024 01003’ and ‘RU974 07002’ with 72–78% degradation after storage for six months, while the highest losses (82–93%) were observed in jams characterised by saturated red-orange colour, high ellagitanin and low initial anthocyanin contents, that is, ‘Glen Magna’, ‘Malling Hestia’ and ‘Octavia’. The results indicate that the genotypes ‘RU024 01003’ and ‘RU974 07002’ might have the potential to replace ‘Veten’, the main cultivar for jam processing in Norway, as new cultivars for industrial processing provided good cultivation qualities and satisfactory taste and flavour of the products.