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Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?
- Dinesh, Devakumar, Murugan, Kadarkarai, Madhiyazhagan, Pari, Panneerselvam, Chellasamy, Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy, Nicoletti, Marcello, Jiang, Wei, Benelli, Giovanni, Chandramohan, Balamurugan, Suresh, Udaiyan
- Parasitology research 2015 v.114 no.4 pp. 1519-1529
- Aloe vera, Anopheles stephensi, Bacillus subtilis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, X-ray diffraction, Yellow fever virus, agar, antibacterial properties, bacteria, dengue, developing countries, instars, larvae, leaf extracts, lethal concentration 50, malaria, medical entomology, minimum inhibitory concentration, nanoparticles, nanosilver, parasites, parasitology, pathogens, people, plague, pupae, scanning electron microscopy, toxicity
- Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC₅₀were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC₅₀were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC₅₀) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in medical entomology and parasitology, allowing us to propose A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles as effective candidates to develop newer and safer mosquitocidal control tools.