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Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and molecular evolution of the spleen tyrosine kinase in lamprey, Lampetra japonica

Liu, Chang, Su, Peng, Li, Ranran, Zhang, Qiong, Zhu, Ting, Liu, Xin, Li, Qingwei
Development genes and evolution 2015 v.225 no.2 pp. 113-120
B-lymphocytes, Lampetra, Western blotting, active sites, complementary DNA, evolution, gene duplication, genes, gills, heart, immune response, immunologic receptors, kidneys, lipopolysaccharides, molecular cloning, non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, open reading frames, protein synthesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, sequence alignment, transcription (genetics), vertebrates
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a member of Syk family of cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinases, is a key component of B cell receptor signaling and regulates multiple physiological functions of B lymphocytes in vertebrates. In the current study, a Syk homologue was identified in the lamprey Lampetra japonica (Lj-Syk). The cDNA fragment of Lj-Syk contains a 1953-bp open reading frame which encodes 651 amino acids, a 12-bp fragment of 5′-untranslated region, and a 1029-bp 3′-untranslated region. The same as vertebrate's Syks, Lj-Syk protein also contains a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain which functions as its kinase activity center and two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains which are the targets when Syk is recruited by phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It is revealed by multiple sequence alignment that the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain and two SH2 domains are conserved throughout the Syk gene family in vertebrates. The evolutionary dynamics of Syks were analyzed by MEME software using conserved motifs as markers. Among 19 conserved motifs elicited from 22 Syks or Syk-like proteins, 12 motifs that locate at N-terminal, two tandem SH2, Inter SH2, and Tyrkc domains are conserved in Syks from jawless to jawed vertebrates. From the absence and existence of the other seven motifs, it can be concluded that the primary Syk gene evolved to modern functional gene through short insertion and deletion strategy in their gene sequence rather than gene duplication. The expression of lamprey Syk was examined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot methods in leukocyte cells, gills, supraneural myeloid bodies, kidneys, and hearts of lampreys before and after the animals were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The transcriptional level of lamprey Syk was upregulated in gill, kidney, heart, and leukocyte cells, and the protein expression level is upregulated in leukocyte cells and supraneural myeloid bodies after stimulated with LPS. It could be deduced that Lj-Syk may play a crucial role in immune response of the jawless vertebrates.