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The progress of silver nanoparticles in the antibacterial mechanism, clinical application and cytotoxicity

You, Chuangang, Han, Chunmao, Wang, Xingang, Zheng, Yurong, Li, Qiyin, Hu, Xinlei, Sun, Huafeng
Molecular biology reports 2012 v.39 no.9 pp. 9193-9201
DNA damage, adverse effects, antibiosis, apoptosis, blood, cell cycle, clothing, cytotoxicity, electronics, genes, human health, mice, nanoparticles, nanosilver, rats, risk
Nanotechnology is a highly promising field, with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been widely used in clothing, electronics, bio-sensing, the food industry, paints, sunscreens, cosmetics and medical devices, all of which increase human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. Many studies indicate that AgNPs are toxic to human health. Interestingly, the majority of these studies focus on the interaction of the nano-silver particle with single cells, indicating that AgNPs have the potential to induce the genes associated with cell cycle progression, DNA damage and mitochondrial associated apoptosis. AgNPs administered through any method were subsequently detected in blood and were found to cause deposition in several organs. There are very few studies in rats and mice involving the in vivo bio-distribution and toxicity, organ accumulation and degradation, and the possible adverse effects and toxicity in vivo are only slowly being recognized. In the present review, we summarize the current data associated with the increased medical usage of nano-silver and its related nano-materials, compare the mechanism of antibiosis and discuss the proper application of nano-silver particles.