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The SNPs in the ACACA gene are effective on fatty acid composition in holstein milk

Matsumoto, Hirokazu, Sasaki, Kenta, Bessho, Takuya, Kobayashi, Eiji, Abe, Tsuyoshi, Sasazaki, Shinji, Oyama, Kenji, Mannen, Hideyuki
Molecular biology reports 2012 v.39 no.9 pp. 8637-8644
Holstein, Wagyu, acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, animal tissues, beef, beef cattle, biosynthesis, cytosol, fatty acid composition, genes, isozymes, lactation, long chain fatty acids, mammary glands, milk, milk composition, promoter regions, sequence analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism
Fatty acid composition is an important economic trait for both dairy and beef cattle and controlled by genetic factors. Candidate genes controlling fatty acid composition may be found in fat synthesis and metabolism pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is the flux-determining enzyme in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in animal tissues. One of two isozymes of this enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA), catalyses the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in mammalian cytosol, leading to the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, the sequence comparison of the coding sequence (CDS) and two promoter regions (PIA and PIII) in bovine ACACA gene was performed between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle to detect nucleotide polymorphisms influencing fatty acid composition in milk and beef. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the CDS region, 28 SNPs in the PIA region and three SNPs in the PIII region. Association study revealed that CCT/CCT type of PIII_#1, #2/PIA_#26 indicated a higher percentage of C14:0 in the milk of the Holstein cattle than CCT/GTC type (p = 0.050) and that a difference of the percentage of C16:0 was observed between CCT/CCT and GTC/GTC type (p = 0.023). CDS_#2 T/T type indicated a higher percentage of C18:0 than T/C type (p = 0.008). In addition, the Japanese Black cattle with CC/GT type of PIII_#1, #2 showed a higher percentage of C18:2 in the meat than those with GT/GT type (p = 0.025). Since PIII is the promoter specific to mammary gland during lactation, the altered expression of the ACACA gene owing to the SNPs in the PIII region may influence the fatty acid composition in the milk.