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Prevalence, diversity and characterization of enterococci from three coraciiform birds

Splichalova, Petra, Svec, Pavel, Ghosh, Anuradha, Zurek, Ludek, Oravcova, Veronika, Radimersky, Tomas, Bohus, Mirko, Literak, Ivan
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 2015 v.107 no.5 pp. 1281-1289
Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecalis, antibiotic resistance, chickens, erythromycin, genes, humans, nestlings, nests, proteomics, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, selective media, vancomycin
Coraciiform birds hoopoe (Upupa epops), common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) and European roller (Coracius garrulus) were examined for enterococci in their cloacae and uropygial glands. The enterococcal isolates were identified at the species level using several genomic and proteomic methods, screened for antibiotic susceptibility and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Clonality of isolates from the common kingfisher was also assessed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Using selective media, putative enterococcal isolates (n = 117) were recovered from 74 % (32 out of a total of 43) of the bird samples and 114 isolates were confirmed as enterococci. Overall, among the total of 6 different species detected, Enterococcus faecalis was dominant (59 %) in all three bird species. The second most frequently isolated species was Enterococcus casseliflavus (32 %). PFGE revealed great diversity of strains from different bird species and anatomic location. Closely related strains were found only from nestlings from the same nest. No genes conferring resistance to vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1 and van C2/C3) or erythromycin (erm A, ermB and mefA/E) were detected. MLST analysis and eBURST clustering revealed that sequence types of E. faecalis from the common kingfisher were identical to those of isolates found previously in water, chickens, and humans.