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Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

Ghosh, Srikanta, Tiwari, Shashi Shankar, Kumar, Bhanu, Srivastava, Sharad, Sharma, Anil Kumar, Kumar, Sachin, Bandyopadhyay, A., Julliet, Sanis, Kumar, Rajesh, Rawat, A. K. S.
Experimental & applied acarology 2015 v.66 no.1 pp. 159-171
Argemone mexicana, Datura metel, Rhipicephalus microplus, acaricidal properties, acaricide resistance, acarology, adults, alkaloids, control methods, ethanol, flavonoids, fruits, glucosides, mortality, phenolic compounds, plant extracts, screening, terpenoids, testing, tick control, ticks
To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95 % ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95 % ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50 % mortality of treated ticks. The 95 % ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC₉₀values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3 %, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner.