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Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Prunus scoparia in Iran

Mendigholi, Kazem, Sheidai, Masoud, Niknam, Vahid, Attar, Farideh, Zahra, Noormohammadi
Annales botanici Fennici 2013 v.50 no.5 pp. 327-336
Prunus scoparia, alleles, almonds, breeding, correlation, gene pool, genetic recombination, genetic variation, geographical variation, germplasm, heterozygosity, loci, microsatellite repeats, population, population structure, trees, Iran
Over 30 Prunus species and taxa below the rank of species are known from Iran. These wild taxa provide an enlarged gene pool and may be considered a valuable germplasm source for breeding cultivated almonds. The present study is a genetic diversity analysis of six P. scoparia populations using six nuclear SSR markers. We also studied correlations between the population genetic differences, morphological differences and geographical distance. All six SSR primers produced amplification. The highest number of alleles occurred in the Fars and Lorestan populations, with 121 and 114 alleles, respectively. Some of the alleles were shared by all populations, while some others were specific to one population only. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.675 in the Tehran population to 0.900 in the Fars and Lorestan populations, while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.783 in the Tehran population to 0.948 in the Fars population. Bayesian model-based clustering showed a good separation of populations at K = 6. AMOVA indicated significant differences both among individuals and among populations. Mantel's test of SSR and morphological trees or geographical distance did not show any distinct pattern. Neighbour-joining and reticulation trees, as well as the STRUCTURE plots revealed admixture among the populations, indicating genetic exchange and presence of ancestral gene loci among them.