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Plastid DNA haplotype diversity and morphological variation in the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex (Orchidaceae) in northern Poland

Naczk, Aleksandra M., Górniak, Marcin, Szlachetko, Dariusz L., Ziętara, Marek S.
Botanical journal of the Linnean Society 2015 v.178 no.1 pp. 121-137
Dactylorhiza, gene flow, geographical distribution, haplotypes, ice, inheritance (genetics), introgression, loci, microsatellite repeats, morphometry, plastid DNA, plastid genome, Poland
To gain an overview of the variation in the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex in northern Poland, ten plastid DNA regions (seven microsatellite and three indel loci) and 23 morphometric characters were used. In total, 972 and 480 samples from 64 and 31 populations were utilized for the genetic and morphometric analyses, respectively. One hundred and forty‐one haplotypes that have not been reported previously were recognized. The continuity of morphological characters between the studied species and the impact of post‐glacial colonization on the observed complexity in the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex were concluded. It was confirmed that the allotetraploid group of D. majalis s.s. has inherited its plastid genome from D. maculata s.l., specifically from D. maculata ssp. fuchsii. In addition, some of the haplotypes found in D. majalis s.s. were distinct and evidently not present in the preserved D. maculata s.l. Although possible gene flow and introgression between two subspecies of the D. maculata s.l. group were indicated, we suggest that they should be treated as separate evolutionary units. Both the common and rare haplotypes show a similar pattern of geographical distribution for all four taxa analysed, which suggests that hybridization took place relatively recently, shortly after the retreat of the ice sheet. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 178, 121–137.