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Chemical Characteristics of Normal, Woolly Apple Aphid-Damaged, and Mechanically Damaged Twigs of Six Apple Cultivars, Measured in Autumn Wood

Zhou Hong-Xu, Wang Xi-Cun, Yu Yi, Tan Xiu-Mei, Cheng Zai-Quan, Zhang An-Sheng, Men Xing-Yuan, Li Li-Li
Journal of economic entomology 2013 v.106 no.2 pp. 1011-1017
Eriosoma lanigerum, Malus domestica, amino acids, apples, autumn, branches, callus, catalase, catechol oxidase, cultivars, enzyme activity, insects, mechanical damage, peroxidase, physicochemical properties, polyphenols, proteins, shoots, sugars, superoxide dismutase, wastes, wood
Chemical characteristics of normal, woolly apple aphid-damaged, and mechanically damaged twigs of six apple cultivars: Red Fuji, Golden Delicious, Qinguan, Zhaojin108, Starkrimson, and Red General, were examined in autumn wood to provide a better understanding of factors related to cultivar resistance to the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Chemical measures examined included soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids, total phenolics, and polyphenol oxidase (that enhances the resistance of plants to insects) and superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase (that degrade waste products in plants). Soluble sugar, protein, and amino acid contents in normal (undamaged) twigs of Red Fuji, aphid-susceptible cultivar, were higher than in mechanically damaged and aphid-damaged twigs. Total phenolic compounds, an important group of defensive compounds against aphids, increased by 30.5 and 6.0% in mechanically damaged twigs of Qinguan and Zhaojin 108, respectively, and decreased by 21.7 and 16.1% in aphid-damaged twigs of Red Fuji and Red General, respectively. Compared with normal twigs, in aphid-damaged twigs, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and polyphenol activity all decreased in Red Fuji. The resistance of some apple cultivars to woolly apple aphid during the growth of autumn shoots was related to several of the physiological indices we monitored. The thin epidermis of callus tissue over healed wounds showed increased susceptibility to the attack by woolly apple aphid. Apple cultivar Qinguan with the highest level of resistance to woolly apple aphid in autumn had increased in amino acid, total phenolic compound levels, and enzyme activity after aphid feeding.