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Population Genetics of Invasive Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species in the United States Based on Microsatellite Markers

Dickey Aaron M., Osborne Lance S., Shatters, Jr. Robert G., Hall Paula M., McKenzie Cindy L.
Journal of economic entomology 2013 v.106 no.3 pp. 1355-1364
Bemisia tabaci, climate, cryptic species, genetic analysis, genetic markers, genetic variation, genotyping, greenhouses, microsatellite repeats, mitochondria, phylogeography, population genetics, population structure, Hawaii
The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex of whitefiies contains two species, MEAM1 and MED, that are highly invasive in supportive climates the world over. In the United States, MEAM1 occurs both in the field and in the greenhouse, but MED is only found in the greenhouse. To make inferences about the population structure of both species, and the origin and recent spread of MED within the United States, 987 MEAM1 whitefiies and 340 MED whitefiies were genotyped at six and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, for population genetic analyses. Major results of the study are 1) MED exhibits more population structure and genetic differentiation than MEAM1, 2) nuclear microsatellite markers exhibit a high degree of concordance with mitochondrial markers recovering a major east-west phylogeographic break within MED, 3) both eastern and western MED are found throughout the continental United States and eastern MED is present in Hawaii, and 4) MEAM1 contains two greenhouse U.S. populations significantly differentiated from other U.S. MEAM1. The results suggest that MED was introduced into the United States on at least three occasions and rapidly spread throughout the United States, showing no discernible differentiation across 7,000 km. The results further suggest that there is an enhanced role of the protected agricultural environment in promoting genetic differentiation in both invasive B. tabaci cryptic species.