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Mating Compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Bo W., Ahmad S., Dammalage T., Tomas U. Sto, Wornoayporn V., Haq I. Ul, Cáceres C., Vreysen M.J.B., Hendrichs J., Schutze M. K.
Journal of economic entomology 2014 v.107 no.2 pp. 623-629
Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera invadens, cages, crossing, cryptic species, eggs, fruit flies, fruits, genetic similarity, hybrids, international trade, larvae, males, pest management, pests, progeny, pupae, sex ratio, viability, China, India, Kenya, Pakistan
The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.