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How Many Primary Parasitoid Species Attack Nymphs of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Punjab, Pakistan?

Hoddle, Mark S., Hoddle, Christina D., Triapitsyn, Serguei V., Khan, Shouket Z., Arif, Muhammad J.
The Florida entomologist 2014 v.97 no.4 pp. 1825-1828
Tamarixia radiata, natural enemies, Encyrtidae, nymphs, hyperparasitoids, immatures, insects, Diaphorina citri, leaves, Pakistan
Summary Hussain & Nath (1927) stated that 9 species of parasitoids attack nymphs of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Punjab Province of Pakistan. Foreign exploration for natural enemies of D. citri over Mar 2011 to Mar 2013 in Punjab Pakistan resulted in the collection of 3,675 parasitoids representing at least 13 different species. However, just 2 species of primary parasitoids, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (55% of collected specimens) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) (28% of collected material) attacked D. citri nymphs and 5 species of hyperparasitoids attacked the immature stages of these two primary parasitoids. The remaining 11 parasitoid species that were identified likely attacked unnoticed insect species that co-infested foliage with D. citri nymphs. We conclude that Hussain & Nath (1927) overestimated the number of primary parasitoids attacking D. citri nymphs in Punjab Pakistan.