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Methyl bromide as a quarantine treatment for Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in regulated wood packing material

Barak, A.V., Wang, Y., Xu, L., Rong, Z., Hang, X., Zhan, G.
Journal of economic entomology 2005 v.98 no.6 pp. 1911
Anoplophora glabripennis, methyl bromide, fumigation, chemical concentration, temperature, Populus, wood, toxicity, larvae, mortality, dose response, quarantine, insect control, packaging materials
Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), has recently (since 1996) established in limited infestations near several cities in the United States. A. glabripennis was probably introduced into the United States with solid wood packing or dunnage. During 2001, we evaluated the current APHIS Schedule T404-b-1-1 for methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation. Fumigations were conducted in 432-liter Lexan chambers inside a 6.1-m refrigerated container. Each fumigation consisted of 12 high-moisture, naturally infested Populus spp. timbers. We fumigated wood for 24 h at 4.4 degrees C (80 g/m3), 10.0 degrees C (64 g/m3), 15.6 degrees C (56 g/m3), and 21.1 degrees C (48 g/m3). All schedule doses resulted in 100% kill of A. glabripennis larvae. During 2002, we conducted additional fumigations to determine the basic toxicity of MeBr to A. glabripennis larvae in solid wood timbers of 10 by 10 by 115-cm size. Probit analysis estimated the CxT product at 99.0, 99.9, 99.99, and 99.99683% kill (probit-9). The probit-9 values for CxT were 1,196.1, 918.7, 642.4, and 362.4 g-h/m3 at 4.4, 10.0, 15.6, and 21.1 degrees C, respectively. Applied doses to achieve this level of control were estimated to be 119.6, 82.7, 56.0, and 32.2 g/m3, respectively. These applied doses are satisfactory for wood as a commodity with wood load factors of approximately equal to 25% and may be higher than necessary for container fumigation where sorptive wood load as crating or pallets may only be 5% or less. The APHIS Schedule T404-b-1-1 is adequate if extended for 24 h and should be amended to include intermediate doses at 10.0 and 15.6 degrees C, thus reducing the use of MeBr at these temperatures.