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Anoxybacter fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a piezophilic, thermophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent

Zeng, Xiang, Zhang, Zhao, Li, Xi, Zhang, Xiaobo, Cao, Junwei, Jebbar, Mohamed, Alain, Karine, Shao, Zongze
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 2015 v.65 no.Pt 2 pp. 710-715
Clostridium, DNA, acetates, alanine, bacteria, beef extracts, butyrates, citrates, erythritol, fatty acids, fermentation, flagellum, fructose, fucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, gentiobiose, global positioning systems, glucose, glutamine, goethite, hydrogen, iron, isomaltulose, lactic acid, mannose, melibiose, methionine, nucleotide sequences, pH, phenylalanine, phylogeny, pyruvic acid, rhamnose, ribosomal RNA, sequence homology, serine, sodium chloride, sulfur, threonine, tryptones, yeast extract
A novel piezophilic, thermophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterial strain, designated strain DY22613 ᵀ, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide deposit at the East Pacific Rise (GPS position: 102.6° W 3.1° S). Cells of strain DY22613 ᵀ were long, motile rods (10 to 20 µm in length and 0.5 µm in width) with peritrichous flagella and were Gram-stain-negative. Growth was recorded at 44–72 °C (optimum 60–62 °C) and at hydrostatic pressures of 0.1–55 MPa (optimum 20 MPa). The pH range for growth was from pH 5.0 to 9.0 with an optimum at pH 7.0. Growth was observed in the presence of 1 to 8 % (w/v) sea salts and 0.65 to 5.2 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum salt concentrations at 3.5 % for sea salts and at 2.3 % for NaCl. Under optimal growth conditions, the shortest generation time observed was 27 min (60 °C, 20 MPa). Strain DY22613 ᵀ was heterotrophic, able to utilize complex organic compounds, amino acids, sugars and organic acids including peptone, tryptone, beef extract, yeast extract, alanine, glutamine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, fructose, fucose, galactose, gentiobiose, glucose, mannose, melibiose, palatinose, rhamnose, turanose, pyruvate, lactic acid, methyl ester, erythritol, galacturonic acid and glucosaminic acid. Strain DY22613 ᵀ was able to reduce Fe(III) compounds, including Fe(III) oxyhydroxide (pH 7.0), amorphous iron(III) oxide (pH 9.0), goethite (α-FeOOH, pH 12.0), Fe(III) citrate and elementary sulfur. Products of fermentation were butyrate, acetate and hydrogen. Main cellular fatty acids were iso-C ₁₅ : ₀, iso-C ₁₄ : ₀ 3-OH and C ₁₄ : ₀. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain DY22613 ᵀ was 36.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain forms a novel lineage within the class Clostridia and clusters with the order Haloanaerobiales (86.92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The phylogenetic data suggest that the lineage represents at least a novel genus and species, for which the name Anoxybacter fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DY22613 ᵀ (= JCM 19466 ᵀ = DSM 28033 ᵀ = MCCC 1A06456 ᵀ).