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Effect of in-row cultivation, herbicides, and dry bean canopy on weed seedling emergence

Amador-Ramirez Mario D., Wilson Robert G., Martin Alex R.
Weed science 2002 v.50 no.3 pp. 370-377
Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum physalifolium var. nitidibaccatum, Solanum sarrachoides, canopy, disturbed soils, dry beans, equations, ethalfluralin, field experimentation, growing season, heat sums, hoeing, in-row tillage, seedling emergence, seedlings, weeds
Field experiments were conducted in 1996 and 1997 to evaluate the effect of EPTC (S-ethyl dipropyl carbamothioate) plus ethalfluralin at 2.4 plus 0.83 kg ai ha⁻⁻¹, rotary hoeing, in-row cultivation, rotary hoeing plus in-row cultivation, and dry bean canopy on weed seedling emergence. Cumulative weed emergence in 1996 and 1997 was similar in cropped and noncropped areas. Herbicides were more effective than mechanical cultivation in reducing weed emergence 91%% in 1996 and 88%% in 1997. Weed emergence was similar in both rotary hoed area and cultivated area in 1996 but weed emergence was 44%% lower in rotary hoed plots than in cultivated plots in 1997. The Gompertz equation did not adequately predict weed seedling emergence in the untreated control and with in-row cultivation in 1996. Initial weed seedling emergence was observed at about 120 growing degree-days with 3 to 9%% cumulative emergence among treatments. In 1997, the Gompertz equation adequately described weed seedling emergence in plots with or without disturbed soil. Weed emergence was first observed at 80 growing degree-days with 6 to 16%% cumulative emergence among treatments. Predicted percent weed emergence closely approximated observed emergence in 1996 and 1997. Rotary hoeing plus in-row cultivation reduced maximum percent emergence rate 37%% on an average. The greater maximum percent emergence rate obtained with in-row cultivation suggests that this treatment increased weed seedling emergence in 1997. On average, weed seedling emergence in the untreated check was lower in cropped areas than in noncropped areas, implying a competitive effect by the dry bean crop. Although weed seedling emergence occurred throughout the growing season, more weed seedlings emerged in June and early July than in late July and August.Nomenclature: EPTC (S-ethyl dipropyl carbamothioate); ethalfluralin; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. AMARE; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. CHEAL; hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides Sendt. SOLSA; wild proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L. PANMI; dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris cv; Great Northern ‘‘Beryl’’.