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Fertilizer application method affects nitrogen uptake in weeds and wheat

Author:
Blackshaw, Robert E., Semach, Gregory, Janzen, H. Henry
Source:
Weed science 2002 v.50 no.5 pp. 634-641
ISSN:
0043-1745
Subject:
Setaria viridis, Sinapis arvensis subsp. arvensis, Triticum aestivum, ammonium nitrate, application methods, biomass, crop-weed competition, cropping systems, fertilizer application, grain yield, growing season, integrated weed management, nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, soil, soil nutrient dynamics, spring, spring wheat, weeds
Abstract:
Managing fertilizer in cropping systems may be an important component of integrated weed management programs. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of various application methods of the ¹⁵N-enriched nitrogen (N) fertilizer on N uptake in green foxtail, wild mustard, and spring wheat and on crop––weed competition. N application methods consisted of ammonium nitrate in solution applied broadcast on the soil surface, applied in pools on the soil surface at 20-cm intervals between every second wheat row, and point injected 10 cm deep at intervals similar to those of the surface pools. An unfertilized control treatment was also included. N uptake by green foxtail throughout the growing season was often greater from surface broadcast than from surface pools or point-injected N and was sometimes greater from surface pools than from point-injected N. In contrast, N uptake by wild mustard was rarely affected by the fertilizer placement method. In the presence of weeds, the ranking of N uptake by wheat usually was point injected > surface pools > surface broadcast. Weed biomass was often greater with surface broadcast than with either surface pools or point-injected N. In the absence of weeds, wheat yields were similar across the three N application methods. However, in the presence of green foxtail, wheat yields were greater with point-injected N than with surface broadcast N in two of the 3 yr and with surface pools of N in one of the 3 yr. In the presence of wild mustard, wheat yields were greater with surface pools and point-injected N compared with the unfertilized control in two of the 3 yr, whereas yields with broadcast N were never greater than the unfertilized control. Study findings suggest that point-injected N results in suppressed weed growth, not by reduced N uptake by weeds but instead by greater N uptake by wheat that increases its competitiveness with weeds. Information gained in this study will be utilized to develop a more integrated program for weed management in spring wheat.Nomenclature: Green foxtail, Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. SETVI; wild mustard, Brassica kaber (DC.) L. C. Wheeler SINAR; spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘‘Katepwa’’.
Agid:
1309266