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Other factors to consider in the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters in oil processes

Ramli, Muhamad Roddy, Siew, Wai Lin, Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri, Kuntom, Ainie, Abd. Razak, Raznim Arni
Food additives & contaminants 2015 v.32 no.6 pp. 817-824
acidity, diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, heat treatment, hydrolysis, pH, palm oils, petroleum, raw fruit, refining, temperature, washing
This paper examines the processing steps of extracting palm oil from fresh fruit bunches in a way that may impact on the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters (3-MCPD esters), particularly during refining. Diacylglycerols (DAGs) do not appear to be a critical factor when crude palm oils are extracted from various qualities of fruit bunches. Highly hydrolysed oils, in spite of the high free fatty acid (FFA) contents, did not show exceptionally high DAGs, and the oils did not display a higher formation of 3-MCPD esters upon heat treatment. However, acidity measured in terms of pH appears to have a strong impact on 3-MCPD ester formation in the crude oil when heated at high temperatures. The differences in the extraction process of crude palm oil from current commercial processes and that from a modified experimental process showed clearly the effect of acidity of the oil on the formation of 3-MCPD esters. This paper concludes that the washing or dilution step in palm oil mills removes the acidity of the vegetative materials and that a well-optimised dilution/washing step in the extraction process will play an important role in reducing formation of 3-MCPD esters in crude palm oil upon further heat processing.