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Further insights into the composition, source, and toxicity of PAHs in size‐resolved particulate matter in a megacity in China

Shi, Guo‐Liang, Zhou, Xiao‐Yu, Jiang, Su‐Yang, Tian, Ying‐Ze, Liu, Gui‐Rong, Feng, Yin‐Chang, Chen, Gang, Liang, Yang‐Ke‐Xin
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2015 v.34 no.3 pp. 480-487
coal, combustion, gasoline, models, particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk assessment, toxicity, China
Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM₁₀) and PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM₂.₅), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. The average concentrations of PM₁₀and PM₂.₅reached 209.75 μg/m³and 141.87 μg/m³, respectively, and those of ΣPAHs were 41.46 ng/m³for PM₁₀and 36.77 ng/m³for PM₂.₅. The mass ratio concentrations were 219.23 μg/g and 311.01 μg/g in PM₁₀and PM₂.₅, respectively. Three sources and their contributions for PAHs were obtained. For individual input mode, diesel exhaust contributed 46.77% (PM₁₀) and 41.12% (PM₂.₅) for mass concentration and 48.69% (PM₁₀) and 39.47% (PM₂.₅) for mass ratio concentration; gasoline exhaust contributed 31.02% (PM₁₀) and 39.47% (PM₂.₅) for mass concentration and 28.95% (PM₁₀) and 36.46% (PM₂.₅) for mass ratio concentration; and coal combustion contributed 22.22% (PM₁₀) and 19.41% (PM₂.₅) for mass concentration and 22.36% (PM₁₀) and 15.89% (PM₂.₅) for mass ratio concentration. For combined input mode, the same source categories were obtained. Source contributions to PM₁₀and PM₂.₅were diesel exhaust (40.70% and 36.64%, respectively, for mass concentration; 49.19% and 38.47%, respectively, for mass ratio concentration), gasoline exhaust (35.09% and 38.47%, respectively, for mass concentration; 32.50% and 33.43%, respectively, for mass ratio concentration), and coal combustion (24.21% and 24.89%, respectively, for mass concentration; 18.31% and18.17%, respectively, for mass ratio concentration). Source risk assessment showed that vehicle emission was a significant contributor. The findings can help elucidate sources of PAHs and provide evidence supporting further applications of the Unmix model and additional studies about PAHs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:480–487. © 2014 SETAC