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Effects of Invasive Plants on Arthropods
- LITT, ANDREA R., CORD, ERIN E., FULBRIGHT, TIMOTHY E., SCHUSTER, GRETA L.
- Conservation biology 2014 v.28 no.6 pp. 1532-1549
- arthropod communities, biodiversity, detritivores, ecological invasion, ecosystems, habitats, introduced plants, invasive species, plant communities, pollination, predatory arthropods, seed dispersal, vegetation, vegetation structure
- Non‐native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer‐reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non‐native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty‐two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web‐building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities.