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Multilocus sequence typing of canine Giardia duodenalis from South Eastern European countries

Sommer, M. F., Beck, R., Ionita, M., Stefanovska, J., Vasić, A., Zdravković, N., Hamel, D., Rehbein, S., Knaus, M., Mitrea, I. L., Shukullari, E., Kirkova, Z., Rapti, D., Capári, B., Silaghi, C.
Parasitology research 2015 v.114 no.6 pp. 2165-2174
parasites, glutamate dehydrogenase, ribosomal RNA, genes, DNA, feces, coproantigens, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Giardia lamblia, pathogens, humans, hosts, dogs, polymerase chain reaction, multilocus sequence typing, pets, fluorescent antibody technique, triose-phosphate isomerase, microscopy, loci, dog diseases, Eastern European region, Croatia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Albania
Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide occurring protozoan that can infect various mammalian hosts. While living conditions are getting closer between pet animals and owners, there is discussion whether dogs may contribute to the transmission of these pathogens to humans. The present study was conducted in order to identify the Giardia assemblages in dogs from South Eastern Europe. For this purpose, 1645 faecal samples of household and shelter dogs from Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia were tested for Giardia coproantigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A subset of 107 faecal samples demonstrating Giardia cysts by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or microscopy (15–22 per country) plus 26 IFA-positive canine faecal samples from Croatia were used for DNA extraction and multilocus sequence typing with nested PCRs targeting five different gene loci: SSU rRNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, beta giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). One third (33.7 %) of the samples tested positive for Giardia antigen in the coproantigen ELISA. Shelter dogs were infected more frequently than household dogs (57.2 vs. 29.7 %, p < 0.01). Amplification was obtained in 82.0, 12.8, 11.3, 1.5, and 31.6 %, of the investigated samples at the SSU rRNA, bg, gdh and tpi loci and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified in 50 and 68 samples, respectively. The results demonstrate that G. duodenalis should be considered as a common parasite in dogs from South Eastern Europe. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic Giardia assemblages in the investigated canine subpopulation.