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Distribution and chemical forms of copper in the root cells of castor seedlings and their tolerance to copper phytotoxicity in hydroponic culture

Kang, Wei, Bao, Jianguo, Zheng, Jin, Hu, Hongqin, Du, Jiangkun
Environmental science and pollution research international 2015 v.22 no.10 pp. 7726-7734
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ricinus communis, biomass, cell walls, cellulose, copper, copper sulfate, cytoplasm, hemicellulose, hydroponics, lignin, nutrient solutions, pectins, phytotoxicity, polar compounds, roots, seedling growth, seedlings, seeds, transmission electron microscopy, China
The subcellular localization and chemical forms of copper in castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings grown in hydroponic nutrient solution were identified by chemical extraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wild castor seeds were harvested from an abandoned copper mine in Tonglu Mountain, Daye City of Hubei Province, China. The results revealed that (1) the seedlings grew naturally in MS liquid medium with 40.00 mg kg⁻¹CuSO₄, in which the seedling growth rate and biomass index were 0.14 and 1.23, respectively, which were the highest values among all the treatments. The copper content in castor seedlings increased along with elevated CuSO₄concentration in the medium, reaching a maximum value of 16 570.12 mg kg⁻¹(DW) when exposed to 60.00 mg L⁻¹CuSO₄, where 91.31 % of the copper was accumulated in roots. (2) The copper existed in various chemical forms in the roots of the castor seedlings. Copper of 67.66 % was extracted from the components of cell walls, such as exchangeable acidic polar compounds, cellulose and lignin, protein and pectin, and less concentrated in cell cytoplasm and nuclei. (3) Furthermore, the root cell walls were thickened when the castor seedlings exposed to CuSO₄, with a large amount of high-density electron bodies, attached to the thickened cell walls. In the cell walls, most copper was bound to the carboxyl (−COOH) and hydroxyl (−OH) groups of acidic polar compounds, cellulose, hemicellulose, and polysaccharides. The conclusion showed that castor exhibited a strong tolerance to copper, the copper were accumulated mainly in the root cell, the root cell walls of castor were the major location of patience and detoxification in copper stress.