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Non‐targeted Metabolomic Profile of Fagus Sylvatica L. Leaves using Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

Cadahía, Estrella, Fernández de Simón, Brígida, Aranda, Ismael, Sanz, Miriam, Sánchez‐Gómez, David, Pinto, Ernani
Phytochemical analysis 2015 v.26 no.2 pp. 171-182
terpenoids, fatty acids, proanthocyanidins, coumaric acids, ionization, polyols, reactive oxygen species, trees, flavanols, liquid chromatography, forests, biomarkers, carbohydrates, secondary metabolites, amino acids, metabolome, metabolomics, leaves, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, flavonols, climate change, abiotic stress, Fagus sylvatica, leaf extracts, biochemical pathways, sterols
INTRODUCTION: Fagus sylvatica L. is one of the most widely distributed broad‐leaved tree species in central and western Europe, important to the forest sector and an accurate biomarker of climate change. OBJECTIVE: To profile the beech leaf metabolome for future studies in order to investigate deeper into the characterisation of its metabolic response. METHODS: Leaf extracts were analysed using LC–MS by electrospray ionisation in negative mode from m/z 100–1700 and GC–MS by electron ionisation in scan mode from m/z 35–800. RESULTS: The LC–MS profile resulted in 56 compounds, of which 43 were identified and/or structurally characterised, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavan‐3‐ols and proanthocyanidins, and flavonols. From a second analysis based on GC–MS, a total of 111 compounds were identified, including carbohydrates, polyalcohols, amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sterols and other related compounds. Many of the compounds identified were primary metabolites involved in major plant metabolic pathways, however, some secondary metabolites were also detected. Some of them play roles as tolerance‐response osmoregulators and osmoprotectors in abiotic stress, or as anti‐oxidants that reduce the effect of reactive oxygen species and promote many protective functions in plants. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a broad and relevant insight into the metabolic status of F. sylvatica leaves, and serves as a base for future studies on physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in biotic or abiotic stress.