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Mammary arteriovenous differences of glucose, insulin, prolactin and IGF-I in lactating sows under different protein intake levels

Farmer, C., Guan, X., Trottier, N.L.
Domestic animal endocrinology 2008 v.34 no.1 pp. 54
sows, mammary glands, blood glucose, insulin, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor I, amino acids, chemical concentration, carotid arteries, blood veins, protein intake, nutrient uptake, lactation
Mammary uptake of nutrients is dependent on their availability in the circulation but the role of hormones in that process is not known. Arteriovenous differences (AVD) of glucose and key hormones across the mammary glands were therefore determined in sows fed varying levels of protein. Sixteen lactating sows (four/dietary treatment) were fed a 7.8, 13.0, 18.2 or 23.5% crude protein (CP) isocaloric diet throughout lactation and their litters were standardized to 11 pigs within 48 h of birth. The anterior main mammary vein and a carotid artery were cannulated on day 4 ± 1 of lactation and blood samples were collected every 30 min over 6 h on days 10, 14, 18 and 22 of lactation to measure glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and prolactin (PRL) concentrations. Amino acid data from these sows were previously published and used here to determine residual correlations. Dietary treatments had no effect on any of the insulin or PRL variables measured (P > 0.1) and, on day 18 only, IGF-I AVD was greater (P = 0.05) for sows on the 23.5% compared to the 18.2% diet. On days 18 and 22, sows fed the 13% CP diet had greater arterial, venous and AVD glucose concentrations than sows fed other diets (P < 0.05). Total arterial amino acid concentrations were correlated to arterial insulin (P < 0.001) and PRL (P < 0.05) concentrations, but not to those of IGF-I (P > 0.1). Mammary AVD for total (P < 0.001) and essential amino acids (P < 0.05) were correlated to arterial concentrations of insulin, but not to those of IGF-I (P > 0.1) or PRL (P > 0.1). Mammary AVD of both total (P < 0.01) and essential (P < 0.05) amino acids were also correlated to mammary PRL AVD. In conclusion, dietary protein level did not affect mammary AVD and circulating lactogenic hormone concentrations. Yet, amino acid utilization by the sow mammary gland seems to be regulated via both circulating insulin concentrations and PRL binding to and uptake by porcine mammary cells.