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Aflatoxin accumulation of white and yellow maize inbreds in diallel crosses
- Betran, F.J., Isakeit, T., Odvody, G.
- Crop science 2002 v.42 no.6 pp. 1894-1901
- Zea mays, inbred lines, aflatoxins, color, food contamination, genetic resistance, disease resistance, plant genetic resources, inflorescences, Aspergillus flavus, seeds, Texas
- Preharvest aflatoxin (AF) contamination is one of the main limitations for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern USA causing enormous economic losses and posing a risk to animal and human health. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate and compare hybrids of new and selected potential sources of AF resistance for AF accumulation under field conditions, (ii) to identify the inbreds with the most consistent expression of resistance under different hybrid combinations and growing conditions; and (iii) to estimate combining abilities of white and yellow inbreds for aflatoxin accumulation and secondary traits. Two diallels among six local and exotic white and six yellow maize inbreds were evaluated at three locations in Texas. Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr. isolate NRRL 3357, either directly through the silk channel or as infested kernels on the soil surface, was effective in promoting AF accumulation in hybrids. White hybrids with low aflatoxin were CML269 x TxX24 and CML269 x CML176. CML269, CML176, and CML322 were the white inbreds with the lowest most consistent AF in hybrids and had the best GCA for aflatoxin resistance. Yellow hybrids with low AF were FR2128 x Mp715, Tx772 x Mp715, and Tx772 x CML326. Tx772 and FR2128 had the best GCA for reduced AF across locations or at specific locations. Inbreds CML326 and Tx772 had consistently low aflatoxin accumulation in hybrids across environments. AF content was correlated with husk cover, ear rot ratings, and insect damage. Exotic inbreds have genetic factors that can contribute to the reduction of aflatoxin contamination.