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Fresh green seed yield and seed nutritional traits of vegetable soybean genotypes

Rao, M.S.S., Bhagsari, A.S., Mohamed, A.I.
Crop science 2002 v.42 no.6 pp. 1950-1958
Glycine max, nutritive value, genetic variation, pods, vegetables, adaptation, plant breeding, crop yield, protein content, phytic acid, seed oils, seed productivity, genotype, Georgia
Edamame (pronounced eh-dah-MAH-meh) are large-seeded soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] harvested as green pods at the R6 stage when the seed are approximately 80% matured. The demand for edamame as fresh or frozen vegetable is increasing worldwide. Currently, lack of adapted edamame cultivars is one of the major factors limiting its commercial production in the southeastern USA. A need exists, therefore, to evaluate and identify Asian vegetable soybean genotypes for potential production and/or as a source of vegetable traits for breeding suitable cultivars. In a 4-yr study, six Japanese edamame cultivars, four large-seeded Japanese plant introductions, two Chinese vegetable soybean cultivars, and two adapted U.S. cultivars were evaluated for fresh green pod and seed yields and seed composition at the R6 stage. The genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block with four replications and were harvested at the R6 stage. The mean fresh pod and seed yields were 18.5 and 9.6 Mg ha(-1), respectively. The PI 181565, 'Tambagura', 'Shangrao Wan Qingsi', and PI 200506 with fresh pod and seed yields in excess of 20 and 10 Mg ha(-1), respectively, offer potential for commercial production in Georgia. The seed oil and protein contents ranged from 130.7 to 155.8 and 333.2 to 386.0 g kg(-1), respectively. The mean glucose content was 67.1 g kg(-1), whereas the mean phytate content was 12.6 g kg(-1). Fresh pod weight was the major yield determinant (R2 = 0.88). The Japanese edamame genotypes may be utilized as a source of vegetable soybean traits in breeding programs.