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Genotype x environment interaction for grain color in hard white spring wheat
- Matus-Cadiz, M.A., Hucl, P., Perron, C.E., Tyler, R.T.
- Crop science 2003 v.43 no.1 pp. 219-226
- Triticum aestivum, genotype-environment interaction, color, seeds, genetic variation, cultivars, agronomic traits, protein content, hardness, Saskatchewan
- Improvement of grain color in hard white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs depends on understanding the influences of genotype (G), environment (E), and their interaction (G x E). The objectives of this study were to quantify genetic variability for grain color and assess the nature of the G x E interaction in determining grain color in 79 spring wheat genotypes. Twelve check cultivars [seven hard red (HR), four hard white (HW), and one soft white (SW)] and 67 white-seeded Australian (AUS) accessions were grown at two locations across 2 yr. Wheat genotypes differed significantly in agronomic traits, grain protein, and kernel hardness. Grain and meal color were quantified using Hunterlab colorimeter values. Whole grain color values without (L = 40.9-50.4 units; a = 7.0-8.3; b = 13.6-19.1) and with NaOH treatment (L = 22.7-38.1; a = 7.7-9.7; b = 9.2-17.9) varied among genotypes. Using ground meal, color values (L = 80.1-84.9; a = 1.8-2.6; b = 8.9-11.8), yellow pigment content (2.5-4.8 microgram g(-1)), and lutein content (1.8-3.7 microgram g(-1)) varied among genotypes. Genotype x location (L) interactions were not significant for colorimetric and pigmentation variables. The Azallini and Cox test detected one crossover G x year (Y) interaction for grain a-value (without NaOH), one for grain b-value (without NaOH), and 12 for lutein content. Genetic variation exists for grain color among HW genotypes. The noncrossover nature of G x E interactions for grain color indicates that white-seeded genotypes selected as superior in one environment will be superior in other environments.