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Campylobacter biofilm phenotype exhibits reduced colonization potential in young chickens and altered in vitro virulence
- Hanning, I., Donoghue, D.J., Jarquin, R., Kumar, G.S., Aguiar, V.F., Metcalf, J.H., Reyes-Herrera, I., Slavik, M.
- Poultry science 2009 v.88 no.5 pp. 1102-1107
- broiler chickens, Campylobacter, biofilm, phenotype, bacterial colonization, chicks, in vitro studies, virulence, bacterial adhesion
- In this study, we evaluated the ability of different Campylobacter phenotypes (biofilm versus planktonic) to colonize young poultry. It has been suggested that a persistent Campylobacter biofilm reservoir may be involved in the initial contamination of poultry flocks. Campylobacter jejuni cultured adherent to agar was utilized as the biofilm model and C. jejuni cultured in broth was evaluated as the planktonic model. In 2 independent trials, 1-d-old broiler chicks were given 1 of 3 treatments: 1) 10⁵ cfu·mL⁻¹ of C. jejuni cultured in broth, 2) 10⁵ cfu·mL⁻¹ of C. jejuni cultured adherent to agar, or 3) no C. jejuni (negative control). Cecal contents of all birds were evaluated by culturing 12 d after the initial challenge with C. jejuni. In both trials, birds challenged with C. jejuni cultured in broth had approximately 3 to 4 log higher cecal Campylobacter concentration than birds challenged with C. jejuni cultured adherent to agar. Using 2 cell lines (INT 407 and DF1), virulence of C. jejuni cultured in broth versus adherent to agar also was evaluated by challenging monolayers of eukaryotic cells with 1 of 3 treatments: 1) 10⁵ cfu·mL⁻¹ of C. jejuni cultured in broth, 2) 10⁵ cfu·mL⁻¹ of C. jejuni cultured adherent to agar, or 3) no C. jejuni (negative control). The virulence study also showed differences of C. jejuni cultured in broth or agar in attachment and invasion abilities to tissue culture cells, but differences were not as consistent as with the chick colonization study. This study indicates that phenotype may play a role in colonization of chickens and virulence by C. jejuni.