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Controlled release of carbofuran from an alginate--bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility
- Fernandez-Perez, M., Villafranca-Sanchez, M., Gonzalez-Pradas, E., Martinez-Lopez, F., Flores-Cespedes, F.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2000 v.48 no.3 pp. 938-943
- carbofuran, alginates, bentonite, acid treatment, sulfuric acid, encapsulation, leaching, sorption, water, kinetics, clay soils
- The insecticide-nematicide carbofuran was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled-release (CR) properties. The basic formulation [sodium alginate (1.61%)-carbofuran (0.59%)-water] was modified by addition of sorbents. The effect on carbofuran release rate, caused by the incorporation of natural and acid-treated bentonite (0.5 and 1.0 M H2SO4) in alginate formulation, was studied by immersion of the granules in water under shaking. The time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, t50, was longer for those formulations containing natural bentonite (6.1 h) or acid-treated bentonite (9.0 and 11.7 h for 0.5 and 1.0 M H2SO4 treatments, respectively) than for the preparation without bentonite (4.7 h). It appears from the results that the release of carbofuran from the various formulations is controlled by a diffusion mechanism according to the n values obtained, which were close to 0.5 in all cases. The mobility of carbofuran from alginate-based CR formulations was investigated by using soil columns packed with a clay soil (53% clay and 0.08% organic matter). Two alginate-based CR formulations containing natural bentonite or acid-treated bentonite (0.5 M H2SO4) were compared to technical grade carbofuran. The use of alginate-based CR formulations resulted in a reduction of the leached amount of carbofuran compared with the total amount of pesticide leached using the technical product (50 and 75% for CR granules containing natural and acid-treated bentonite, respectively). Alginate-bentonite CR formulations might be efficient systems for reducing carbofuran leaching in clay soils, which would reduce the risk of groundwater pollution.