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Biochemical basis of color as an aesthetic quality in Citrus sinensis
- Oberholster, R., Cowan, A.K., Molnar, P., Toth, G.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2001 v.49 no.1 pp. 303-307
- oranges, Citrus sinensis, color, carotenoids, biochemistry, food quality
- The biochemical basis of color as an aesthetic quality in mature fruit of navel and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) was determined. Saponification of the two major color-imparting components resolved by thin-layer chromatography, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, revealed that these comprised acyl esters of (9Z)-violaxanthin and beta-citraurin. Identification of the chromophores was based on cochromatography and online spectral analysis. The color quality of flavedo of mature fruit was dependent on the content and relative amounts of (9Z)-violaxanthin and beta-citraurin. Quantitative results revealed that increased color intensity was associated with a decline in the (9Z)-violaxanthin:beta-citraurin ratio from greater than 50 to below 10, an increase in flavedo (9Z)-violaxanthin and beta-citraurin content, and that measurement of the mass and ratio of these carotenoids can be used to accurately color-grade orange fruit for local and export markets.