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Use of electrospray mass spectrometry for mass determination of grape (Vitis vinifera) juice pathogenesis-related proteins: a potential tool for varietal differentiation

Hayasaka, Y., Adams, K.S., Pocock, K.F., Baldock, G.A., Waters, E.J., Hoj, P.B.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2001 v.49 no.4 pp. 1830-1839
Vitis vinifera, wine cultivars, cultivar identification, liquid chromatography, chitinase, grape juice, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein composition
Methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and protein trap mass spectrometry (trap-MS) were developed to determine the complement of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in grape juice. Trap-MS was superior to LC-MS in terms of simplicity, rapidity, and sensitivity. Proteins with a wide range of masses (13-33 kDa) were found in the juices of 19 different varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera) and were identified as mostly PR-5 type (thaumatin-like) and PR-3 type (chitinases) proteins. Although the PR proteins in juices of grapes are highly conserved, small consistent differences in molecular masses were noted when otherwise identical proteins were compared from different varieties. These differences persisted through different harvest years and in fruits grown in different Australian locations. With the definition of four different masses for PR-5 proteins (range = 21239-21272 Da) and nine different masses of PR-3 proteins (range = 25330-25631 Da) and using statistical analysis, the methods developed could be used for varietal differentiation of grapes grown in several South Australian locations on the basis of the PR protein composition of the juice. It remains to be seen whether this technology can be extended to grapes grown worldwide and to wine and other fruit-derived products to assist with label integrity to the benefit of consumers.