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Metabolism of biochanin A and formononetin by human liver microsomes in vitro
- Tolleson, W.H., Doerge, D.R., Churchwell, M.I., Marques, M.M., Roberts, D.W.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2002 v.50 no.17 pp. 4783-4790
- genistein, formononetin, metabolism, liver, microsomes, cytochrome P-450, enzyme activity, metabolites, humans, rats
- Biochanin A and formononetin are abundant in legumes. These proestrogenic isoflavones can be converted by 4'-O-demethylation to the more potent phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein. Incubation of biochanin A or formononetin with human liver microsomes resulted in 4'-O-demethylation and the production of additional metabolites. Three new hydroxylated formononetin derivatives, 6,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, 7,8-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, and 7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, were isolated and characterized. We surveyed the O-demethylase competence of cytochrome P450 isoforms found in human liver. Human cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2E1, 2C9*1, 2C19, and 2D6*1 catalyzed biochanin A consumption and genistein production. Human cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2C9*1, 2A6, 2D6*1, and 2C19 catalyzed formononetin consumption and daidzein production. These isoforms also generated other hydroxylated metabolites. Although O-demethylation of isoflavones has been attributed to metabolism by gut microflora, our study demonstrates that human hepatic microsomal enzymes can perform the same transformation and may play a key role in the conversion of 4'-O-methylated isoflavones to more potent phytoestrogens.